Gaza Cybergang(s) is a politically motivated Arabic-language cyberthreat actor, actively targeting the MENA (Middle East North Africa) region, especially the Palestinian Territories.
The confusion surrounding Gaza Cybergang’s activities, separation of roles and campaigns has been prevalent in the cyber community. For a while, the gang’s activities seemed scattered, involving different tools and methods, and different malware and infection stages, although there was an alignment in its goals…
During our 2018 monitoring of this group, we were able to identify different techniques utilized by very similar attackers in the MENA region, sometimes on the same target. The findings led to us distinguishing between three attack groups operating within Gaza Cybergang:
Gaza Cybergang Group1 (classical low-budget group), also known as MoleRATs;
Gaza Cybergang Group2 (medium-level sophistication) with links to previously known Desert Falcons;
Gaza Cybergang Group3 (highest sophistication) whose activities previously went by the name Operation Parliament.
The groups use different styles and, in some cases, techniques, but deploy common tools and commands after initial infection. The three attack groups were identified sharing victims. For example, Group1 would deploy a script to infect a specific victim with malware belonging to Group2, or similarly between Group2 and Group3.
More information on previous Desert Falcons (Group2) and Operation Parliament (Group3) activities can be found below:
Group2: ‘The Desert Falcons targeted attacks‘
Group3: ‘Operation Parliament, who is doing what?‘
Additional findings on Gaza Cybergang Group2 and Group3 will be presented in future publications. For more information, please contact: email@example.com
Gaza Cybergang Group1, described in this post, is the least sophisticated of the three attack groups and relies heavily on the use of paste sites (with the operation name SneakyPastes) in order to gradually sneak a remote access Trojan (RAT) or multiple, onto victim systems. The group has been seen employing phishing, with several chained stages to evade detection and extend command and control server lifetimes. The most popular targets of SneakyPastes are embassies, government entities, education, media outlets, journalists, activists, political parties or personnel, healthcare and banking.
In this post, we’ll take a closer look at Gaza Cybergang Group1, including:
Updated 2018/2019 tactics, techniques and procedures
Victimology of the group between Jan 2018 and Jan 2019
Historical checkpoints and politicized graphical decoys in Appendix I
Full list of indicators of compromise in Appendix II
Through our continuous monitoring of threats during 2018, we observed a new wave of attacks by Gaza Cybergang Group1 targeting embassies and political personnel. Gaza Cybergang Group1 is an attack group with limited infrastructure and an open-source type of toolset, which conducts widespread attacks, but is nevertheless focused on Palestinian political problems. The attackers rely a lot on chained attack stages to evade quick detection and hide the communication infrastructure.
After an analysis of the samples, and through collaboration efforts with law enforcement agencies, we were able to uncover the full cycle of the intrusions that spread across the majority of the cyber kill chain, including but not limited to the toolset used, TTPs, infrastructure, action on objectives and the victimology. These efforts have led to the takedown of a large portion of the related infrastructure.
In this campaign, Gaza Cybergang used disposable emails and domains as the phishing platform to target the victims. Then pastebin.com, github.com, mailimg.com, upload.cat, dev-point.com and pomf.cat were used as channels for the different malware stages before achieving a full RAT implementation, which then communicates with the corresponding C2 server.
We have identified several implants that leveraged PowerShell, VBS, JS, and dotnet for resilience and persistence. The final stage, however, is a dotnet application that takes several commands such as directory listing, screenshot, compress, upload, etc. It then creates random long string folder names in temp directories to host the collected files per category before compressing, encrypting and uploading to the C2 server.
The threat actor seemed able to spread attacks widely, but only deployed additional tools and data collection functions in specific cases, as though they had a target list or a filter for targeted victims. Phishing emails with political themes were used in the majority of the observed attack emails. These were necessary to lure the intended type of victims – people involved in politics.
In order to meet the phishing emails’ infrastructure requirements, disposable domains and emails were used as the delivery medium. On occasions, the phishing emails contained links to external domains to download the first stage, and sometimes the first stage was attached to the email itself.
If the user clicks on the link, he will be prompted to download a RAR file that contains the stage 1 malware/lure, which he will execute afterwards.
Intrusion life-cycle analysis
The diagram below displays at a high level the steps taken by typical Gaza Cybergang Group1 lure samples. While different samples may use different methods to infect (i.e. invoke PowerShell, VBS, .NET app downloader, etc.), they generally stick to the same scenario of a persistent RAT that steals data and uploads it to the C2 server despite the different hard-coded domains.
Stage 1 sample file: 3amadi_hamas.zipMD5: e686ffa90b2bfb567547f1c0dad1ae0bType: Compressed containerChild file/lure name: محضر اجتماع العمادي مع هنية رئيس حماس امس الاحد .exeChild file/lure MD5: 92dd0f16e8ae274d83ba1d0d5b2e342
This sample ZIP file, which is similar to many other stage 1 downloaders in this campaign, contains an executable that is a compiled AutoIt script and which embeds some interesting functions (listed in the table below). The executable attempts to download a couple of files from different sources and saves them in the AppData and Startup folders for persistence, then invokes the first downloaded file – Picture2.exe.
UrlDownloadToFile, https://upload.cat/0037e96c45ac2098?download_token=fa26750b7e73f0081c44831d0aaf9863c75592724dbc2f781ca495f9b5fbd4ac, %AppData%MicrosoftWindowsPicture2.exe
UrlDownloadToFile, https://upload.cat/089590f6d72aeaef?download_token=dd21809321669aa2229b20b57e2c9d34a3b507b5df7406bcac5dbb87cd169b78, %AppData%MicrosoftWindowsStart MenuProgramsStartupPicture4.exe
UrlDownloadToFile, https://dev-point.co/uploads1/4ee1d5a5b0e41.jpg, %AppData%Thr0om.jpg
UrlDownloadToFile, https://upload.cat/ec9d388339b19e1c?download_token=131d5450c192d0591f3d06841eacc5bf5f344be9725be9456e2c222d0b4831e2, %AppData%MicrosoftWindowsStart MenuProgramsStartup333Po333.exe
UrlDownloadToFile, https://upload.cat/9a08bc13e683d330?download_token=90f1ebb4e1f52835f502bea4307686afc1eb1cdee973cef1fb043febb2a92078, %AppData%MicrosoftWindowsStart MenuProgramsStartupWindowsFrom444444.exe
UrlDownloadToFile, https://upload.cat/a1c05c819dadeefb?download_token=c6535b11a9f9bbf9e7681be8753f2058bac0df5264744be76605244e96a388f5, %AppData%MicrosoftWindowsStart MenuProgramsStartupWindowsFrom355353.exe
RunWait %AppData%MicrosoftWindowsPicture2.exe ,, hide
After analyzing the files downloaded from the above first stage malware, it was clear that the threat actor wanted to achieve stable persistence on the victim machine, and also used more than one technique to exfiltrate data. The analyzed samples had a lot of similarities in terms of the code used and especially in the persistence techniques.
All the stages’ executables are created as chains to avoid detection and protect the C2 server. They consist mainly of persistence mechanisms and simple instructions despite their different forms (VBS scripts, PowerShell scripts, known software with open source code that can be backdoored, and in-house built dotnet apps). The RAT, however, had a multitude of functionalities (as listed in the table below) such as to download and execute, compress, encrypt, upload, search directories, etc. The threat actor’s main objective for using this RAT (known as Razy/NeD worm/Wonder Botnet) was obvious from the victim data that was collected – it was to search for specific file extensions such as PDF, DOC, DOCX, XLS, and XLSX, where they are compressed in RAR files per category, stored in temp directories within a folder named by victim ID (bot ID – long MD5 string), encrypted and uploaded to the C2.
Downloads encrypted strings found on the /Feed server page that represents specific keywords of interest which, if found, then compresses/encrypts using Winrar appending “Keyword” in the file name and uploading to the C2 using a POST command at the path “/FeedBack.php”. FeedBack.php validates the sender by User-Agent, saves the data in the “RAR” server directory and stores the metadata in the mssql database for later reference.
Trigger to upload all data gathered to the C2 using a POST command at the path “/log.php”. Log.php validates the sender by User-Agent, saves the data in the “UP” server directory and stores the metadata in the mssql database for later reference.
Deletes the file named by tempPath + “ky” file so as not to upload anything.
Re-uploads recent data to the C2 server using POST at the path “/FeedBack.php”.
Restarts the RAT application process.
Creates a file in the Temp path and names it “Block~” + PCID to kill the RAT.
Takes a PNG screenshot of the main screen and names the file with timestamps, then uploads it to the C2 server using POST at the path “/FeedBack.php”.
Creates a file in the Temp path and names it “LA” + PCID to possibly spread through LAN. Note: this seems to refer to an unloaded feature/module of the RAT that is not currently in use.
Deletes the file created by the LAN command to reverse the effect.
Creates a file in the Temp path and names it “us” + PCID then invokes another program module named Remo.test to identify removable drives.
Deletes the file created by the USB command to reverse the effect.
Creates a file in the Temp path and names it “hd” + PCID then invokes another program module named hd.test1 to identify logical drives.
Deletes the file created by the HD command to reverse the effect.
Shuts down the system using cmd /s /t 0
Reboots the system using cmd /r /t 0
Lists all active processes and all installed software and uploads the results to the C2 server using a POST command at the “/log.php”.
Deletes all files in the “AppData/Local/Temp” path.
Creates RAR files per logical drive containing data with timestamps for the past 7 days, then uploads RAR to the C2 server using a POST command at the path “/FeedBack.php”.
Creates RAR files per logical drive containing data with timestamps for the past 30 days, then uploads RAR to the C2 server using a POST command at the path “/FeedBack.php”.
Creates RAR files per logical drive containing data with timestamps for the past 7 days, then uploads RAR to the C2 server using a POST command at the path “/FeedBack.php”.
Kills system processes.
In 2018, the threat actor mostly relied on a single C2 server (184.108.40.206) and rotated a multitude of domain names over a period of time. However, the attacks different stages were hosted on a variety of free sites such as Mailimg, Github, Pastebin, dev-point.co, a.pomf.cat, and upload.cat.
The phishing email infrastructure though relied on disposable email providers such as bit-degree.com, mail4gmail.com, careless-whisper.com and others.
Based on the analyzed metrics, the victims were spread across 39 countries and reached 240+ unique victims. The Palestinian Territories host the majority of the victims, followed by Jordan, Israel, then Lebanon, as noted in the below table.
The most targeted entities are embassies, government entities, education, media outlets, journalists, activists, political parties or personnel, healthcare and banking.
Number of victims
Senegal, France, Germany, Iran, Malaysia, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Libya, Morocco, Spain, Sri Lanka, Tunisia, Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Cyprus, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Kuwait, Oman, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovenia, Sudan, UK, USA
< 5 Conclusions While Gaza Cybergang Group1 described in this post looks like a low sophistication group, with limited infrastructure and attack files that can be found in the wild, they are the most relentless in their attacks, with continuous targeting and high malleability. This has allowed the group to achieve reasonable success against a relatively wide array of victims. Gaza Cybergang is evolving and adapting to the MENA region – a complex setting with complex requirements. The attacks are now divided into three groups with different levels of sophistication and different levels of targeting. We expect the damage caused by these groups to intensify and the attacks to extend into other regions that are also linked to the complicated Palestinian situation. The attackers also seem to be within reach of more advanced tools, techniques and procedures, and we expect them to rely more on these in future attacks. More information on Desert Falcons (Group2) and Operation Parliament (Group3) will be presented in future publications. Appendix I – Main historical checkpoints and politicized decoys Gaza Cybergang Group1 2016-2019 MD5 Hash First seen Filename/Decoy Translation/Explanation C2 server B3a472f81f800b32fe6595f44c9bf63b Feb 2016 برقية وزارة الخارجية التركية لسيادتكم حول موضوع هام.exe Translation: Letter for you from the Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs on Russian military operations in Syria en.gameoolines.com (220.127.116.11) Df3f3ad279ca98f947214ffb3c91c514 e8a29c7a6f6c0140152ca8a01e336b37 March 2016 president abu mazen meetings with khaled meshaal.lha dw.downloadtesting.com (18.104.22.168) f9bcc21fbb40247167c8c85ed6ef56e3 March 2016 دراسة.lha Dl.topgamse.com (22.214.171.124) D9dbb65a42ffe0575f0e99f7498a593e April 2016 برقية الخارجية السعودية لسيادتكم يرجي الإطلاع – مهم.exe Translation: Saudi Foreign Affairs telegram for you, please see – important.exe en.gameoolines.com (126.96.36.199) 221EEF8511169C0496BBC79F96E84A4A April 2016 تقرير السعودية والمعلومات المتوفر – ونستكمل عند التوفر.exe Translation: Report on Saudi available information, to be updated with new info upon availability dw.downloadtesting.com (188.8.131.52) 62DF4BC3738BE5AD4892200A1DC6B59A Inside: 55d33d9da371fdfe7871f2479621444a May 2016 معلومات عن هجوم محتمل من الحوثيين على مواقع سعودية – خاص.exe Translation: Information on possible attack by Houthis on Saudi sites – private dw.downloadtesting.com (184.108.40.206) 838696872F924D28B08AAAA67388202E May 2016 عاجل المخابرات المصرية.exe Translation: Urgent Egyptian Intelligence dw.downloadtesting.com (220.127.116.11) e8be9843c372d280a506ac260567bf91 May 2016 برقية وزارة الخارجية السعودية.exe Translation: Saudi Foreign Affairs telegram.exe Message on the 34th GCC for Interior Ministers. Wiknet.wikaba.com (18.104.22.168) Wiknet.mooo.com 55d33d9da371fdfe7871f2479621444a May 2016 نموذج ترشيج الدورة الخاصة .rar Translation: Form for private training selection Application for a certain legal training program for judges in the UAE dw.downloadtesting.com (22.214.171.124) e782610bf209e81ecc42ca94b9388580 July 2016 عاجل – مؤتمر ايران.exe Translation: Urgent – Iran conference dw.downloadtesting.com (126.96.36.199) 5db18ab35d29d44dda109f49d1b99f38 June 2017 פרצת פרטיות בכרום מאפשרת לאתרים להקליט אתכם ללא ידיעתכם.exe Translation: A privacy breach in Chrome allows sites to record you without your knowledge Wiknet.wikaba.com (188.8.131.52) wiknet.mooo.com Dae24e4d1dfcdd98f63f7de861d95182 June 2017 مراسلات العتيبة.. وثائق ومعلومات.exe Translation: Al Otaiba correspondence. Documents and information Explanation: Yousef Al Otaiba is the current United Arab Emirates ambassador to the United States and Minister of State. The decoy discusses leaks that were reported in 2017 of his emails. Wiknet.wikaba.com (184.108.40.206) wiknet.mooo.com 2358dbb85a29167fa66ee6bf1a7271cd April 2018 كتاب وزارة الخارجية الإماراتية لسيادتكم.exe Translation: Book of the UAE MOFA for you. Explanation: Document that looks as if it comes from the UAE MOFA discussing a political meeting between GCC countries and the EU in Belgium dw.downloadtesting.com (220.127.116.11) 10dfa690662b9c6db805b95500fc753d Sept 2018 محضر اجتماع على الهاتف بين رئيس المكتب السياسي لحركة حماس اسماعيل هنية ورئيس المخابرات المصرية.exe Translation: Minutes of a phone call between the head of the political bureau of Hamas Ismail Haniya and the head of Egyptian intelligence Upload.cat (download site) 6b5946e326488a8c8da3aaec2cb6e70f Sept 2018 Explanation: Document discusses a radio talk by Khalid ‘Abd al-Majid, head of a breakaway faction of the Palestinian Popular Struggle Front, a minor left-wing group within the Palestinian Liberation Organization. He talks about an agreement between al-Nusra and ISIS militants to leave the Palestinian Yarmouk camp in Syria. Wiknet.wikaba.com (18.104.22.168) Wiknet.mooo.com 342a4d93df060289b2d8362461875905 Oct 2018 تسريب من داخل القنصلية السعودية حول مقتل جمال خاشقجي.exe Translation: Leak from the Saudi consulate on the death of Jamal Khashoggi Time-loss.dns05.com (22.214.171.124) c9cae9026ee2034626e4a43cfdd8b192 Jan 2019 محضر اجتماع السفير القطري العمادي مع الوفد المصري في رام الله .exe Translation: Minutes of meeting of Qatari Ambassador Emadi with the Egyptian delegation in Ramallah Time-loss.dns05.com (126.96.36.199) dji-msi.2waky.com Appendix II – Indicators of compromise Type IoC Description RAR md5 E686FFA90B2BFB567547F1C0DAD1AE0B Stage 1 executable / lure RAR md5 CE5AA4956D4D0D66BED361DDD7DB1A3B Stage 1 executable / lure RAR md5 4F34902C9F458008BAE26BFA5C1C00DA Stage 1 executable / lure RAR md5 535F8EA65969A84A68CEAF88778C6176 Stage 1 executable / lure RAR md5 E8A29C7A6F6C0140152CA8A01E336B37 Stage 1 executable / lure RAR md5 E782610BF209E81ECC42CA94B9388580 Stage 1 executable / lure RAR md5 F9BCC21FBB40247167C8C85ED6EF56E3 Stage 1 executable / lure EXE md5 33369AFD3042326E964139CABA1888D3 Stage 2 executable (19182-exe) that invokes Pastebin chain EXE md5 2AD88AE20D8F4CB2C74CAE890FEB337A Stage 2 executable (1918-exe) that invokes Pastebin chain EXE md5 55929FF3E67D79F9E1E205EBD38BC494 Stage 2 executable (21918-exe) that invokes Pastebin chain EXE md5 DA486DF0D8E03A220808C3BFA5B40D06 Stage 2 executable (Adope-exe) that invokes Pastebin chain EXE md5 C7F98F890B21C556D16BFF55E33C33AB Stage 2 executable (Application-exe) that invokes Pastebin chain EXE md5 FAFCC11AF99ACF1B70997BC4BF36CFC0 Stage 2 executable (bind-exe) which is a backdoored Tile Slide Puzzle computer game that invokes Pastebin chain – code freely available EXE md5 28CACBF64141F50426830B385AB1BE4C Dell-cmd – Command string to Delete User Temp directory EXE md5 F30C00E87C7EE27033DC0AC421F3B4F8 Stage 2 executable (D-exe) that invokes Pastebin chain EXE md5 51A59AEC24B5046EC4615728A5B52802 Stage 2 executable (Dv-exe) that invokes Pastebin chain EXE md5 98BDE191AE6E2F7D8D4166C4B21A27D2 Office-vbs – github.gist lolpoke/system1 EXE md5 9E152A6ADCB57D44284AF3B6FD0C94C2 Stage 2 executable (p0w-exe) that invokes Pastebin chain EXE md5 CAB62BB5F00FE15683C6AF760C8E8F7E wPic4-exe – RAT executable similar to Pictures4.exe EXE md5 192DD65864119017AA307BE3363E31BB Powe1-exe – executable that uses scheduled tasks to execute VB scripts EXE md5 71E462260F45C5E621A5F5C9A5724844 WinPeggy4-exe – backdoored Peggy Bees computer game – source code available on Microsoft site EXE md5 AB98768D2440E72F42FCD274806F8D2A WinPeggy-exe – another variant of WinPeggy4.exe EXE md5 DAACE673B1F4DFE8A4D3D021C5190483 Word-hta – VBS code to invoke PowerShell from github.gist..0lol0/system1.ps1 EXE md5 1529AE427FE4EB2D9B4C3073B2AA9E10 Word-vbs – VBS code to invoke PowerShell from github.gist lolpoke/system1.ps1 Powershell md5 CCD324DF0F606469FCA3D1C6FFA951AD System1.ps1 – PowerShell script that invoke a binary in memory that uses NETSH commands to allow programs, then execute a Trojan downloaded from myftp[.]biz Powershell md5 D153FF52AE717D8CF26BEF57BDB7867D Install.ps1 – PowerShell script that invoke a cobalt strike beacon EXE md5 AD1C91BF5E7D1F0AAF2E4EFB8FB79ADE Stage 2 executable (res-vbs) that invokes Pastebin chain EXE md5 EE3AD5B06DBC6CCA7FDC9096697A9B4A Re-vbs – VBS script that uses Pastebin data to create scheduled task and run JScript to invoke RAT EXE md5 805CA34E94DA9615C13D8AF48307FB07 Folder.exe – another RAT variant based on Pastebin chain EXE md5 F330703C07DDD19226A48DEBA4E8AA08 Stage 2 executable (shell-exe) that invokes Pastebin chain EXE md5 CFD2178185C40C9E30AADA7E3F667D4B Another RAT variant based on Pastebin chain EXE md5 C2EE081EC3ADEF4AFACAB1F326EE50FF 2poker2.exe – use PowerShell command to invoke base64 string from Pastebin and create another RAT variant EXE md5 B3A472F81F800B32FE6595F44C9BF63B Stage 1 executable / lure EXE md5 DF3F3AD279CA98F947214FFB3C91C514 Stage 1 executable / lure EXE md5 221EEF8511169C0496BBC79F96E84A4A Stage 1 executable / lure EXE md5 62DF4BC3738BE5AD4892200A1DC6B59A Stage 1 executable / lure EXE md5 55D33D9DA371FDFE7871F2479621444A Stage 1 executable / lure EXE md5 838696872F924D28B08AAAA67388202E Stage 1 executable / lure EXE md5 E8BE9843C372D280A506AC260567BF91 Stage 1 executable / lure EXE md5 55D33D9DA371FDFE7871F2479621444A Stage 1 executable / lure EXE md5 D9DBB65A42FFE0575F0E99F7498A593E Stage 1 executable / lure EXE md5 5DB18AB35D29D44DDA109F49D1B99F38 Stage 1 executable / lure EXE md5 DAE24E4D1DFCDD98F63F7DE861D95182 Stage 1 executable / lure EXE md5 2358DBB85A29167FA66EE6BF1A7271CD Stage 1 executable / lure EXE md5 10DFA690662B9C6DB805B95500FC753D Stage 1 executable / lure EXE md5 6B5946E326488A8C8DA3AAEC2CB6E70F Stage 1 executable / lure EXE md5 342A4D93DF060289B2D8362461875905 Stage 1 executable / lure EXE md5 C9CAE9026EE2034626E4A43CFDD8B192 Stage 1 executable / lure Network dji-msi.2waky.com External C2 domain; rotates with the others over time Network checktest.www1.biz External C2 domain; rotates with the others over time Network fulltest.yourtrap.com External C2 domain; rotates with the others over time Network microsoft10.compress.to External C2 domain; rotates with the others over time Network mmh.ns02.us External C2 domain; rotates with the others over time Network ramliktest.mynetav.org External C2 domain; rotates with the others over time Network testhoward.mysecondarydns.com External C2 domain; rotates with the others over time Network testmace.compress.to External C2 domain; rotates with the others over time Network time-loss.dns05.com External C2 domain; rotates with the others over time Network wiknet.mooo.com External C2 domain; rotates with the others over time Network Wiknet.wikaba.com External C2 domain; rotates with the others over time Network supports.mefound.com External C2 domain; rotates with the others over time Network saso10.myftp.biz External C2 server used by PowerShell scripts to download malware Network 188.8.131.52 External C2 server (most active) Network 184.108.40.206 External C2 server (least active) Network 220.127.116.11 External C2 server (least active) Network 18.104.22.168 External C2 server (least active)
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